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APEC Primer

KASALESAYAN

Nanu ya ing Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation at bakit ya mitatag ya iti?

Mitatag ya ing Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, o APEC inyang 1989. Megumpisa  ya iti bilang metung a grupung impormal a nung nukarin magdayalogu la king ministerial a nibel ding labing aduang miyembru na niti: Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysiya, New Zealand, Pilipinas, Singapore, Thailand, Canada at United States. Inumpisan de ing APEC bilang banuaang pulung ning foreign and trade ministers o ring ministring pangkalakalan da ring ali-aliwang balen. Parasan da reting apanatili ing momentum ning pamamuklat ning merkadu at kooperasyung pang-ekonomiya a maulaga king pamanikwa king kaunlaran at kasaplalan king Asya Pasipiko.

Pekaunang sangkan at parasan king pamitatag ning APEC ing kapagnasan a makagawa lang forum o kumperensiya, a mamye dalan king migit a panyulung ning ekonomiya ra ring kasapi/kayabe  kaniti. Mangabaldugan ya iting pamagpabilis`king kaunlarang pang-ekonomya, pamisulung ning pamisasanmetung pilatan da ring miyembru, liberalisasyun ning kalakalan, at maglalang karing oportunidad ning Asya-Pasipiko.

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Mumunang litratu : Ing APEC Member Economics agpang king banua ning karelang pamakyabe.

Pikwanan: APEC at a Glance, 2012.

DING MIYEMBRU

Ninu la ring miyembru ning APEC?

King kasalukuyan, aduang pulu’t metung lang miyembrung ating aliwa-liwang kabyasnan a pang-ekonomiya ring bibilug king APEC. Kabilang la kareti ring maunlad at mumunlad pamung bansa. Ding aduang pulu’t metung a miyembru ila  ring Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pilipinas, Singapore, Thailand, Canada, United States, Chinese Taipei, People’s Republic of China, Hongkong, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Chile, Peru, Russia at Vietnam.

Kadalasan, awsan lang “member economies” ding kayabe miyembru ning APEC. “Member Economies” ing gagamitan uling pakibatan no ning APEC ding isyung pangkalakalan at ekonomiya. Tuturing da lang ekonomikong entidad ding miyembru ning APEC ban makipag-ugnayan king metung at metung.

Minunang mipasiyag ing pangabuu ning APEC king pamanyalita nang Prime Minister ning Australia a I Bob Hawke king Seoul, Korea inyang Enero 1989. Gaganapan ing pekaunang pulung ning APEC king Canberra inyang banua mu ring ita. Ding miyembru ning ASEAN, South Korea at Japan ning Albugang Asya, Australia at New Zealand ning Mauli- Albugang Pasipiko, at United States  at Canada ning Pangulung Amerika ding megsilbing miyembrung talapagtatag ning organisasyun. Sumangid na ning panga sobreranya da reting estado, pignasan dang maging kabilugan a yatu ing panyulung ning karelang ekonomiya. Dagdag pa, ginawa lang máragúlang kalakalan deting egana-ganang miyembru karing aliwa pang ekonomiya king Asya-Pasipiko. Deting  sablang salik – ing panga soberanya, kaularang ekonomiko, at pamakipagkalakalan karing ekonomya na ning Asya-Pasipiko – ing migsilbing paunang  basehan  ning pangasapi/ pangayabe king APEC.1 Mapilan panahun pamu ing milabas inyang agawa da rin ding aliwang member economies a tuki karing tuntunan para maging miyembru ning grupu.

Makanyan man, linto la rin ding komplikasyun tungkul karing tuntunan ning pamagmiyembru. Anti kanini ing meging kasu da ring mangalating islang ekonomiya  ning Mauli- Albugang Pasipiku a talagang mituturing a pangkabilugang-yatu king karelang istrukturang pang-ekonomiya at maleparan lang mekipagkalakalan karing karing aliwang Asya-Pasipiko.Mekasumbagal ing dagul at kabyasnang politikal at pang-administratibo ra deting estado ning Mauli-Albugang Pasipiko a meging kasapi ning APEC, liban king Papua New Guinea. Metung ya pang isyu ing linto king pamagmiyembru ning Russia uling king gewa nang malabsang repormang pang- ekonomiya at karing panluwal a ugnayan nang pang-ekonomiya  a binang mepokus king Europa.2

Uli ning pisasabyan a ini, migluwal yang apulung banuang moratoryum o pansamantalang pamanuknang king pamananggap dang miyembru anyang 1997. King pamamupus ning 2007, pepakaba ra ing moratoryum hanggang 2010.

Ninu-ninu la ring magumasid?

Ding atlung opisyal a magumasid ning Asia-Pacific Economic Corporation (APEC) ila ring  Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat, ing Pacific Economic Council (PEC), at ing Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat. Dirinan dong karapatan makyabe karing pulung ning APEC reng magumasid at makaakses ( makalub la para manikwa lang impormasyun karing dokumentu) karing dokumentu at nanumang impormasyung ating kebalwan king APEC. Irake re ring magumasid areni ing karelang pamikasaupan, kabyasnan at gelingan para asopan de ing APEC king katuparan ning karelang parasan at pamipatupad karing kayang inisiyatibo. Pakikwanan da reting grupu ing pamisanmetung at ekonomikong panyulung king rehiyon. Sasabyan ning pamipalarawan king lalam ing kaya-kaya rang parasan at pakikwanan.

Screen Shot 2015-01-08 at 4.02.28 PMAgpang king makasabi king deklarasyun ning ASEAN king Bangkok inyang Agosto 8, 1967, parasan ning ASEAN ing maleparang pamagpalaganap at pamagpabilis ning kaunlarang pang-ekonomiya, pangsosyedad, at pangkultura king Mauli-Aslagang Asya kapamilatan ning abe-abe pamagsikap, king diwa ning pamipante-pante at pamisaup-saup. King anti kanining paralan, migit yang asulung ing pamisanmetung king rehiyon a pasikanan na ning kapayapan, kaunlaran at kasaplalan king lugal. Pakikwanan na rin ning ASEAN ing magpalaganap kapayapan at estabilidad king rehiyon kapamilatan ning pamakipag-ugnayan karing aliwang balen agpang king batas at pamanupad karing prinsipyu ning United Nations Charter.3

Screen Shot 2015-01-08 at 4.02.33 PMEne kalupa ning ASEAN, migaganap ya ing Pacific Economic Corporation (PECC) karing indibidwal king matas a posisyun ibat karing sektor ning kalakalan at industriya, gobyernu, akademya at aliwa pang mangabiyasang grupu a gagawang aguman a maki atlung kasapi/kayabe. Ila, bilang pribadung entidad makyabe la ring grupu da reting indibidwal ban malaya rong apisabyan ding makapanahun at praktikal a isyung pampolisiya king Asya-Pasipiko. Magsilbi ya ing PECC bilang rehiyonal a forum para king pamisanmetung at pamakipag-ugnayang pampolisiya na yang sumaup king pamipasulung ning kaunlarang pang-ekonomya king Asya-Pasipiko. Pisasabyan da king forum ing isyu tungkul king pamagpabilis ning kaunlarang pang-ekonomiya, panlipunan, pang-siyensiya, panteknolohiya, at pangkalikasan king kabilugan a rehiyon. Buri da ring akit iting kaunlaran king kalakalan, pamagsosyu, mutual aid at aliwa pang aske ning pamaki-ugnayan, hustisya, paggalang at tutung pamisaup-saup at tawli, king pamipatibe ning pundasyun para king metung a masaplala, maunlad at payapang Asya-Pasipiko.

Screen Shot 2015-01-08 at 4.02.39 PMIng Pacific Islands Forum ing manimunang rehiyonal at inter government forum king Mauli Pasipiko. Bibilugan de reti ring labing-anam a independyenting estado. Kalupa na ing ASEAN at PECC, pakikwanan na muring pasiglan  ing kaunlarang pang-ekonomiya, asamasan ing pampolitikang pamibala at seguridad at pasikanan ing pamisanmetung at pamaki-ugnayan king rehiyon. Pakibatan no ring isyu tungkul king kalakalan king rehiyon, ekonomikong kaunlaran, pamipatupad karing batas pangkalikasan at panrehiyon, pamisanmetung at kaligtasan king Mauli Pasipiko.4

DING MANIMUNANG PARASAN

Nanu ing buri nang akwa ning APEC?

Manimunang parasan ning APEC ing  mamye paralan ban maglalang at magpanatili king malambatan a kaunlaran at kasaplalang pang-ekonomya king rehiyon.Linikas de iting haraya bilang Bogor Goals of 1994 a magsulung king malaya at makabuklat a pamamuhunan king Asya-Pasipiko. Layun ning APEC a akwa ne ing parasan a ini pangaratang ning 2010 para karing industrialisadung ekonomya at 2020 naman para karing papaunlad a ekonomiya.

Migit pa keti, para akwa re ing Bogor Goals, migbuû la ring miyembru ning APEC a metung a balangkas a kinilala ra bilang “Three Pillars ( Atlung Asyas)” king Osaka, Japan inyang 1945. Mágsilbi la ring atlung asyas areni bilang  patnube king manimuna rang parasan a malayang kalakalan at pamamuhunan a pagnasan dang akwa. Ding makatuki ila ring atlung asyas:

MUMUNANG ASYAS: LIBERALISASYUN NING KALAKALAN AT PAMANUHUNAN

Parasan ning liberalisasyun ning kalakalan at pamamuhunan a ditak-ditak dang palatiyan hanggang ganap nong milako ring “taripa at ali taripang sumbagal king kalakalan at pamamuhunan.”  Metung yang patakarang pang-ekonomiya ing protectionism a papatupad potang poprotektahan no ning gubyernu reting lokal nang  industriya laban karing dayuhang kompetisyon. Kadalasan dang gagawan iti kapamilatan ning taripa, subsidio, kota king angkat at aliwa pa. Uli na niti, mitatas ing presyu ra ring produktu at serbisyu. Kabaligtaran na niti, bubuklat na naman ning liberalisasyun ning kalakalan at pamamuhunan ding merkadu, anya pin daragul ing kalakalan at pamamuhunan pilatan da ring bansa. King pamamawas at pamanlako karing taripa at sumbagal king kalakalan, ena la migaganaka ring estado king pangatas ning presyu da ring panyalwan. King kaniting paralan, mayan yang mayakwa ing kaunlarang pang-ekonomya para karing miyembru ning APEC.

Metung ya ring paralan ing Regional Integration agenda para gawan dong mas epektibu ring atlung asyas a kaugne ning Bogor Goals. Gagawa yang paralan ing Regional Economic Integration para agawa nong mayan ring kasunduang pangkalakalan a bilateral at rehiyonal. Susuryan no murin niti  ring posibleng lugal king rehiyon para makagawa lang malayang kalakalan.

KADWANG ASYAS: PASILITASYUN NING PAMAGNEGOSYU

Parasan ning asyas a ini na palatyan ing pigastusan karing transaksiyung pangnegosyu at pangkalakalan. Nung malati ing gastus king produksiyon, miraragdagan ing  kalakalan, pamamuhunan at ding oportunidad para magnegosyu uling máging mura la ring produktu at serbisyu. Malyari ya iting magbungang mas marakal a kapanintunan a mag-ambag king  pangsablang kaunlaran ning bansa.

Parasan namu naman niting asyas a gawang mas mabilis a paralan para makaakses la king impormasyung pangkalakalan. Piyayabe no niti ring patakaran at etstratehiya ban parehu lang munta king mabilis  a pamikwa king maunlad a ekonomiya, pati ing metung a rehiyong makabuklat at malaya ing kalakalan.

PANGALUNG ASYAS: KOOPERASYUNG EKONOMIKU AT TEKNIKAL

Kapamilatan na ning asyas a ini, magkalub yang pamagsane ing APEC at kooperasyung gamitan da ing aktibidad at proyektung magpagaling king beluan dang pang-ekonomiya at panteknolohiya ring miyembru na. Prayoridad ning ECOTECH (Economic and Technical Cooperation) ing integrasyun ding ekonomiya king rehiyon, a pakibatan na ing kapagnasan ning kaunlaran para karing sabla, sasalesen at poprotektahan na ing dekalidad ning pamibiye-biye da ring tau kapamilatan ning malambatan a kaunlaran, repormang pang-istruktura at seguridad pantau.5

PAMANGIMUT NING APEC

Makananu nang atupad ning APEC ing  kayang parasan at haraya?

Para akwa ya ing APEC Bogor Goals ning malaya at makabuklat a kalakalan at pamamuhunan king Asya-Pasipiko, migbuu la ring miyembru ning APEC a metung a estratihikong roadmap o planu inyang meganap ing APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting King Osaka Japan ninyang 1995. Kilala ya ing roadmap a ini bilang Osaka Action Agenda.

Miyayapag yang metung a balangkas ing Osaka Action Agenda para mayakwa ya ing Bogor Goals kapamilatan ning liberalisasyun at pasilitasyun ning APEC. Reti ila ring makatuki:

  • Comprehensiveness o maleparang pamag-intindi king pamamakibat king sablang sumbagal king parasan ning malaya at makabuklat a kalakalan.
  • WTO-consistency o panga consistent karing prinsipyu na niti karing parasang susulung ning WTO.
  • Comparability o pamihawig da ring mitembru nung ing pisasabyan tungkul ya king liberalisasyun, at pasilitasyun. Hanggang malyari, ela dapat mikakalaut ding lebel ding mumunlad pa mung bansa king metung at metung; makanyan mu rin karing maunlad a ekonomiya.
  • Non-discrimination o alang kikilingan king pamamawas karing sumbagal king kalakalan a ipatupád para karing sablang ekonomiyang APEC at ali APEC.
  • Transparency o pangatransparent karing batas, regulasyun at administratibung pamamaralan karing sablang miyembru ning APEC.
  • Standstill o ing e pamangawang hakbang a malyaring magpatas king proteksiyunismu.
  • Simultaneous start, continuous process and differentiated timetables o pamagumpisang agnan-agnan, pamanyundu king prosesu at miyayaliwang talaorasan king pamangawa king liberalisasyun, pasilitasyun, at pamisasanmetung papunta king katuparan na ning Bogor Goals.
  • Flexibility o gelingang makibage king sitwasyun, king pamipatupad karing prosesu ning liberalisasyun at pasilitasyun.
  • Cooperation o aktibung pagsikapan ing pamisasanmetung pang-ekonomiya at panteknolohiya.

Iulat ne ning APEC member economies ing karelang progresu king pamanikwa king Bogor Goals kapamilatan na ning pamamasar  ning Individual Action Plans (IAPs) at Collective Action Plans (CAPs). Regular dong ibye reng ulat a reni king APEC Secretariat.

INDIVIDUAL ACTION PLANS

Ing Individual Action Plan (IAP) yang panimunang mekanismu king pamipatupad ning adyendang liberalisasyun at pasilitasyun ning kalakalan at pamamuhunan. King simpling amanu, metung yang listahan ding magagawang aksiyon ing IAP para mayakwa ing parasang malaya at makabuklat a kalakalan at pamamuhunan. Susulung ne ning  IAP ing transparency o kalinawan at kapatan king pamiulat ning APEC member economies karing kare- karelang  indibidwal a progresu king pamipatupad ning pangakung liberalisasyun king pamamuhunan.

Makabasi ya ing pamiulat ning IAP karing makatuking bage:

  • Tariff o taripa
  • Intellectual property o banding intelektuwal
  • Mobility of business people o masaguling pangimut da ring negosyanti
  • Non-tariff measures o ring batas a laban king malayang kalakalan bukud king taripa
  • Competition policy o patakarang panlilgligan
  • Official website that gather economies’ information o ring opisyal a website a titipun karing impormasyun da ring ekonomiya
  • Services o ring serbisyu
  • Government procurement o pamanyali ning gobyernu
  • Transparency o katapatan/ at alang sasalikut
  • Investment o pamamuhunan
  • Deregulation/ regulatory review o deregulasyun / pamanyuri karing regulasyun
  • Regional Trade Agreements/Free trade agreements (RTAs/FTAs) o Kasunduang Pangkalakalang Rehiyonal/ Kasunduan ning Malayang Kalakalan
  • Standards and conformance, o ring tuntunan at pakisanmetung karing tuntunan a reti
  • WTO Obligations (including rules of origin) o ring obligasyon ning WTO
  • Customs procedures, o ring pamamaralan ning kostum
  • Dispute mediation o pamamilatan karing e- pamikasunduan

 

DING BENEPISYU

Nanu-nanu la ring benepisyu ning panga miyembru ning APEC?

Bilang metung a multilateral a forum, dirinan nong pamikatagun ning APEC ding adwang pulu’t metung a miyembru  na niti, kayabe ya ing komunidad da ring negosyanti at aliwa pang grupu para pisabyan ya ing isyung makaapektu king Asya- Pasipiko. Dirinan no ring balang stakeholder o mamuhunan, a metung lugal para mipalitan lang ideya, opinyun, responsibilidad at planu papunta king pamipasikan ning arapan nang kaunlaran ning rehiyon.

Maragul a benepisyu ing akakwa da ring mumunlad at maunlad a ekonomiya ibat king APEC. Pagkaluban no ning APEC ring maunlad a ekonomiya a karagdagang impormasyun at patnube king aspetu ning pamipagaling king pamamaralan, balangkas ding patakaran, at aliwa pang sistemang ating kaugnayan karing kontemporaryung isyu. Kabilang karing mapilan a isyung deti ing katapatan/ transparency, pamanibala, reporma king pinansiyal a sektor,  pamamaralan king kostum. pamanggamit karing miyaliwang APEC forum a ibat karing  magobrang grupung mipupulung, seminar at  pulung da ring lider.  Miririnan lang pamikatagun ding balang diputadu da ring bansa a mabyasa king bayung gelingan pati na ing pekamayap a gawa ring aliwang ekonomiya. Parehu lang ating oportunidad ring mumunlad at maunlad a ekonomiya a tikda na ning APEC. Pasikanan ne ning APEC  ing indibidwal at pamiyabe-yabe gelingan ding miyembru bilang kayabe king pamanyuring pang-ekonomiya. Gagawa ya mu ring epektibung forum nung nukarin magkonsulta ya at dirinan nong pamikatagun ring kayabe  a isulung ing karelang pisasanmetung a interes at ipalaganap nala ring interes a reni king mas mangaragul a multilateral a forum

Katatawliyan, makatanggap la ring pakinabang at benepisyu ring negosyu king pamakirake da king APEC. Kabilang karing benepisyung deti ing maleparang pamamawas karing sumbagal at balakid king kalakalan.

DING TAGUMPE

Nanu- nanu la ring apagtagumpayan ning APEC king kasalukuyan?

Umpisa inyang mitatag ya ing APEC, meging kapansin-pansin na ing tagumpe na niti at  mebye yang mebye ing ekonomiya king Asya-Pasipiko. Inyang 2012 bubuuan de ring miyembru ning APEC ing  apat apulung porsiyentu ning kabilugan a populasyun ning yatu ( 2.8 bilyung katau).6 Nung pagsaniban la reting ekonomiya, abuu re ing apat apulu’t pitung porsiyentu ning kabilugan a yatung kalakalan (USD 21 trilyon) at limangplulu’t pitung porsiyentu ng GDP (USD 41 trilyon).7 Pamatutwanan da ring numerung deti ing dinamismo ning APEC.

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Pangaras king liberalisasayun ning kalakalan at pamumuhunan, ikwa nana ning APEC king kasalukuyan reting makatuki:

  • Inyang mitatag ya ing APEC kanitang 1989, 16.9 porsiyentu ing average trade barriers o sabat king kalakalan king rehiyon. Karas ning 2010, asna karagul ing pangababa ning trade barriers a ini, a minabut na mung 5.8 porsiyentu.8
  • Ing kabilugan a intra-APEC a kalakalan da ring merchandise o paninda, meragul la ibat king $1.7 trilyon inyang 1989 hanggang $ 9.9 trilyon inyang 2012.King kasumangid a banda, linobu mu rin ing kabilugan a kalakal ning APEC pangaratang king goods and services ibat king $ 3.1 trilyon inyang 1989 hanggang $16.8 trilyon inyang 2010.
  • Ating pirmadung 140 free trade agreements karing sablang miyembru ning APEC. Karing sablang pinirman a free trade agreements a ini, 134 ing papatupad kabang 49 la ring pinirman kayabe ning metung pang miyembru ning APEC.9
  • Ing Regional Economic Integration agenda, a metung a programang lumwat a marakal a banua at makapokus king pamanikwa king Bogor Goals ning liberalisasyun ning kalakalan at pamamuhunan, kaksalukuyan neng pagaralan ing posibilidad a mikaating Free Trade Area of theAsia- Pacific. Mekabuu ya iting modelong kaparalanan para king Free Trade Agreements at Regional Trade Agreements.10 Meging kilala ya rin ing APEC king pangaaktibung tagasulung ding multilateral a negosasyung pangkalakalan king World Trade Organization kilub ning milabas a adwang pulung banua.
PASILITASYUN NING NEGOSYU

Kilub ning pilan a dekada, pepalaganap ne ning APEC ing pasilitasyun ning kalakalan kayagnan king globalisasyun ning mabilug a yatung ekonomiya.Parasan ning Trade Facilitation Action Plan (TFAP) ning APEC a panatilyan lang simpli, mayan tukyan at transparent ding  pamamaralang pangkalakalan para king malayang lakad ning komersiyu pilatan ding ekonomiya. Uli na niti , papatupad na ing pamaglako ning red tape karing import at export bankanita maging episyenti at matipid ing pamanatad karing kalakal. Manibat 2002 hanggang 2006, apagtagumpayan ne  ning APEC ing metung a hakbang a bawasan ing gastus ning transaksiyun ding negosyu king rehiyon a limang porsiyentu. Manibat 2007 hanggang 2010, pasibayu neng abawasan ning TFAP king limang porsiyentu ing gastus. Mekatipid ya iting kabilugan a USD 58.7 bilyon.11

Pilan karing inisyatibu ing pepatupad da a mekasaup para maging mayan ing kalakalan. Kabilang la keti ring makatuki:

  • Papakilala de ring miyembru ing elektronikung pamagprosesu ning dokumentu.
  • King pamangamit king Single Window Strategic Plan inyang 2007, pahintulutan do ring importer at eksporter a ibye king gobyernu—king metung mung transaksiyun ding kailangang impormasyun – imbes na karing mangarakal a ahensiya.
  • Saguli lang mayakit ding impormasyun tungkul king taripa at Rules of Origin ning ding miembru ning APEC king karelang webpage on Tariffs and ROOs (“WebTR”). Mibansag ya iti inyang Nobyembre 2010.
  • Pagsikapan na ning APEC na gawan nang higit a masanting ding kayang miyembru karing mamuhunan . Susulung de iti kapamilatan na ning Investment Facilitation Action Plan of 2008.
  • Patnubayan no ning APEC Privacy Framework ring kayang miyembru king pamipatupad karing patakaran at pamamaralan para king proteksiyun da ring.
  • Kapamilatan ning APEC Business Travel Card (ABTC), maging mayan ing pamagbiyahi uli na ning pamagpahintulut karing bona fide business traveler a mirinan pre-approved visa clearance at express lane transit king airport karing kasaping ekonomya.
  • Pakíbatán la ring sumbagal king behind-the-border barriers to trade kapamilatan ning Structural Agenda ning APEC. Magpokus ya iti karing pangdomestikung patakaran at institusyun a akakayabe karing merkadu, kayabe na ing kapasidad da ring negosyu a mikaatin nang pamagkumparan para mas masalese lang makakimut.
ECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION (ECOTECH)

Ating kabilugan a 1,600 a proyektung dinisenyu ra para madagdagan ing kapasidad da ring ekonomya ing inumpisan da inyang 1993. Banua-banua, manga 100 hanggang 150 proyektu ing puponduan na ning APEC. King katutwan, inyang 2011 hanggang 2012, minabut  king 73 proyektu ing pepatupad na, 32 kareti ing makapokus king pamagtiyak ning de-kalidad a biye dala ning pangmalwtang kaunlaran, 9 a proyektu ing para king kaunlarang pangsabla, 21 king seguridad pantau, 2 king repormang pang-istruktura, at 9 king integrasyung pang-ekomiya king rehiyun o regional economic integration.12

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Ding Proyektung ECOTECH agpang king Prayoridad (Banuang 2010-2013)

  • Repormang pang-istruktura: 3%
  • Integrasyung Pang-ekonomiya king Rehiyon: 12%
  • Pamamakibat king Dimensiyong Panlipunan ning Globalisasyun (Pangsablang Kaunlaran): 20%
  • Pamagtiyak king De-kalidad a Biye dala ning Pangmalwatang Kaunlaran: 20%
  • Seguridad Pantau: 28%

Metung karing peka kikilalanang kontribusyun ning ECOTECH ing pamagbawas ning keyaliwa nang lebel (digital divide) ring  industrialisadu at mumunlad a bansa. Inyang  2000, peninap ning APEC ing metung a rehiyon a mikaakses la king internet ding sabla, anya pin pinlanu ne iting triplihan ing gamit ning internet king rehiyon. Ikwa ne ing paninap nang ini at kinilala de iti inyang 2008 APEC Ministerial Meeting on the Telecommunications and Information Industry. King kasalukuyan, migtakda ya ing APEC a metung pang parasan a magkalub unibersal a akses king broadband king laganas a rehiyon karas na ning 2015, agiyang pang tinuring deng ambisyosung parasan da ring Telecommunications Ministers king Okinawa, Japan inyang 2010.

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Ing metung pang proyektung asahan dang makasaup king pamagpalit ning digital divide ya ing pamipatatag metung a network ning apatapulu’t anam (46) a APEC Digital Opportunity Centers (ADOC) a kasalukuyang dang gagawan kring apulung (10) miyembru. Gaganap la ring sentrung deni bilang lokal a information  communication technology (ICT) resource center a magkalub karing memalen at negosyu king rehiyon ning akses king ICT, edukasyon at pamagsane.

ALIWA PANG TAGUMPE

Papannsinan no ning APEC ali mu ring pisasabyan tungkul king pamanlakad ning malayang kalakalan at pamumuhunan, nune pati ring aliwa pang makapanahung prayoridad ning rehiyon. Kabilang ne keti ing paglaban king terorismu (Shanghai Statement inyang 2001 at ing Counter-Terrorism Task Force), seguridad pantau (Health working Group), pamagsadya karing oras ning kagipitan (Emergency Preparedness Working Group), pamagbayu na klima, seguridad pang-enerhiya at kaunlarang makakalikasa  (Ing Sydney Declaration inyang 2007 at ing APEC List of Environmental Goods inyang 2012), at ing tawli, kabilugan a yatung krisis pinansiyal. (Ing Viadivostok Statement inyang 2012).

DING PANGIMUT

Kikimut ya ing APEC bilang metung a kooperatiba, multilateral a forum pang-ekonomiya at kalakalan. Iti ing bukud tanging kikilalanang mabilug a yatung intergobyernung pamanggrupu (International intergovernmental grouping) king yatu a manalakaran para king pamagbawas karing sumbagal king kalakalan at pamamuhunan a e na kailangan pang masakup la ring miyembru na niti karing gewa ra nang batas a pikasunduan. Boluntaryu ing pamakyabe king APEC at ela sapilitan ding desisyun na niti.13 Sususlung ning APEC ing dayalugu/pisasabyan at pamagpasiya agpang king pipagkasunduan ding sabla. Nung makanyan, apanatilyan ing pamipante-pante ring miyembru na niti. Gagawa ya iting aktibidad agpang king makabuklat a dayalugu at  respetu king opinion ning sablang kayabe.14

Ninu la ring magtakda king agenda at planu na ning APEC?

Mamatnube la ring Economic Leaders at Ministers  a magpulung king kekaban ning banua ing obra da ring miyembrung bansa king APEC para sabyan ya ing kinabukasan na ning kooperasyung pangkalakalan at pamumuhunan king Asya-Pasipiko. King APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting a migaganap kayari ning balang banua, lulwal de ing metung a pasiyag a pimimetung-metung do ring prayoridad ning APEC para king tutuking banua. Ding minister a kakatawan king aliwa-liwang portfolio, ding Senior Officials at ding miyembru ding aliwa-liwang APEC forum, mikit-ikit la king kekaban ning banua para magbansag lang bayung inisyatiba, tunggiyan ing pamanusad da ring mimiral a programa at magpatupad karing direktiba ibat karing lider ekonomiko. Susulung ne ning APEC ing pamakisangkut ning mumunlad at maunlad a bansa, malati at maragul king mabilug a prosesu ning pamagdeisisyun kaniti

SAKLO NING OBRA

Nanu ing saklo nang obra ning APEC?

Kasalukuyan nang panigobran ning APEC ring atlung maleparang  obra ban akwa ing Bogor Goals na niti: ing panga atin malaya at makabuklat a kalakalan at pamamuhunan king Asya-Pasipiko kadatang ning 2010, para king industrialadung ekonomiya at 2020 para karing mumunlad at maunlad a bansa. Deti ilang Three Pillars o Atlung Asyas na ning APEC:

  • Liberalisasyun ning Kalakalan at Pamamuhunan
  • Pasilitasyun ning Negosyu
  • Economic and Technical Cooperation (ECOTECH)

Kikilalanan ya ing APEC bilang metung karing pekaunang institusyong pang mabilug a yatu.15  Inugne neng mahigpit ing pangkorporasyun, pamibalang pampinansiyal, patakarang panligligan, komersiyung elektroniku, repormang pang-edukasyun. At episyenting pamaglalang king enerhiya at aliwa pa.

DIREKSIYUNG PAMPOLISIYA

Ninu ing magtakdang direksiyung pampolisiya ning APEC?

Manibat king 21 APEC Economic Leaders ing direksiyung pampatakaran ning APEC. Ding rekomendasyung pang-istratehiya ning APEC Ministers at APEC Business Advisory Council, tuturing no ning APEC Economic Leaders a parti ning prosesong iti.

Ding makatuking pulung  magagawa la balang banua para iporma ya ing direksiyung pampatakaran ning APEC:

Screen Shot 2015-01-08 at 4.03.14 PM

APEC ECONOMIC LEADERS’ MEETING

Ing APEC Economic Leaders’ meeting magaganap yang metung a besis king metung a banua king bansang gaganap o manibala king ekonomiya. Pupunta la ring lider da ring estado ning miyembru maliban king Republic of China (Kakatawanan ne ning metung a opisyal king ministerial a nibel, lalam ning lagyung Chinese Taipei). Miganap ing 2013 APEC Economic Leaders’ meeting inyang Oktubre 5-7, 2013 king Bali, Indonesia. Ing Pilipinas yang  manibala at manimuna king APEC keng 2015.

Ding deklarasyun ibat karing Leaders’ Meeting ing mitatakda king adyendang pampatakaran ning APEC.

APEC MINISTERIAL MEETING: Migaganap ing banuaang APEC Ministerial Meeting ning foreign ang economic /trade ministers metung o aduang aldo bayu ing APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting. Kayabe karing parasan ning ministerial meeting ing pamanyuri (pamamye ebalwasyun) karing aktibidad ning APEC  para king banua at pamamye rekomendasyun para pagaralan ning APEC Economic Leaders.

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SECTORAL MINISTERIAL MEETINGS Regular yang midadaus ing Sectoral Ministerial Meetings ban pisabyan ding isyung ating kebalwan king edukasyun, enerhiya,kalikasan at pangmalwatang kaunlaran, pinansiya, pamipaunlad ning yamang tau, kooperasyung pang-siyensiya, at teknolohiya king rehiyon, small & medium enterprises, indusrtiya ning telekomunikasyun at impormasyun, turismu, kalakalan, transportasyun at pisasabyan a pangkebabainan. Kalupa ning APEC Ministerial Meetings, papasar/ papása ro ding meging bunga at rekomendasyun ibat king sectoral meetings king APEC Economic Leaders para mirinan konsiderasyun.

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APEC BUSINESS ADVISORY COUNCIL Tetag ing APEC Advisory Council  (ABAC)  inyang 1995 ing metung a entidad ibat king pribadung sektor a mamye rekomendasyun karing pun ning APEC kapamilatan ning karelang banuaang dayalugu at magpáyu karing opisyal ning APEC tungkul karing prayoridad at mangaulagang pisasabyan para king sektor ning negosyu. Mititipun-tipun ing ABAC a apat a besis king metung a banua. Papadala ya ring peka katawan king APEC Senior Officials’ Meeting,  Annual Ministerial meeting at Sectoral Ministerial meetings. Tsa atlu lang senior business leader balang APEC member economiy ing bibilug king ABAC.

Ninu ing tagapagdaus ning banuaang APEC Leaders’ Meeting?

Balang banua, metung karing 21 APEC Member Economies ing gaganap bilang host o tagapagdaos ning APEC Meetings at magsilbing APEC Chair o Pun na niti. Bilang tagapagdaus, ing member economy yang pekapun a responsabli king banuaang Economic  Leaders’ Meeting. Piling Ministerial Meetings, Senior Oficials Meetings, at ning APEC Business Advisory Council at APEC Study Centers Consortiums.   ning Leaders’ Meeting (APEC Summit).

Kritikal ing gagampanan nang tungkulan ning APEC Chair king pamag-impluwensiya king direksiyun ning pamag-unlad ning APEC karas ning kalamnan ning kooperasyun at mebanggit a prosesu.16 Dagdag pa, titiyakan na ning padurut-durut a karakter ning pangapun a sasalimanan na ning maleparang sakup ning adyenda karing miyayaliwang interes da ring miyembru na niti.

Nukarin ya kukwang pondu ing APEC  para magsagawang aktibidad at pamagpulung?

Ding aktibidad ning APEC ilang pangunahing puponduwan ning banuaang kontribusyun ibat king APEC member economies, a mamabut US $ 5 million king kasalukuyan. Gagamitan do reting kontribusyun para pondwan ya ing metung a Secretariat Singapore at samut-saring proyektung susuporta karing parasan a pang-ekonomiya at pangkalakalan ning APEC. Mamye ya rin ing miyembru a boluntaryung kontribusyun a susuporta karing proyektung magpasulung king liberalisasyun ning kalakalan at pamamuhunan ning APEC at pasilitasyun ding kayang pakikwanan, pati na ing pamamakibat karing pamangailangan para king pamipatas king kayagyuan, lalu na ring APEC developing economies.

Liban king metungge nang pamagpulung, makananu la magagawa ring working level activities ning APEC?

Papatnubayan ya ing APEC working level activities and projects ning APEC Senior Officials manibat king 21 APEC member economies. Papatupad la reting aktibidad at proyektuning apat a mangatas a komite: (1) Committee on Trade and Investment;

(2) Senior Officials’ Meeting Committee on Economic and Technical Cooperation; (3) Economic Committee; (4) Budget and Management Committee. Ding sablang miyaliwang subcommittee, experts’ group, working groups at task force , susuporta la karing aktibidad at proyektung panimunan ning mas matas a komiti.

APEC SECRETARIAT

Nanu ing papil ning APEC Secretariat?

Kikimut ya ing APEC Secretariat bilang sentrung makanismung pansuporta king prosesu ning APEC.  Inatasan nala reting mangawang koordinasyun, teknikal a suporta, at pamagpayu, kabilang ing pamangasiwa king impormasyun, komunkasyun, at kawanggawa para king publiku. Gagampanan ne ning APEC Secretariat ing papil ning sentrung talapangasiwa ning proyektu, manantabe king APEC member economies king pamamalakad ning miyaliwang proyektung pinonduan ning APEC at king pamibala ning banuaang badyet. Papanatilyan na ning APEC Secretariat ing kayagyuan nang suportahan ding saliksik at pamanyuring  gagawan da kayabe ning APEC Study Centers at PECC bilang rekisitu ning APEC fora. Ing APEC Secretary panimunan ne ning metung a Executive Director, Allan Bollard bilang pamuntuk ning Secretariat. Ing Executive Director yang makibatan karing APEC Senior Officials kapamilatan ning SOM Chair at pamahalaan ne ing Secretariat agpang karing prayoridad a tinakda ning SOM king lagyu da ring Minister. Pang-atlung banuang pirmihang terminu ing pangatalaga king Executive Director, at makabuklat ya iti karing propesyunal a kandidatu ibat kaninu mang APEC member economies. Atagpuan ya ing opisina na ning APEC Secretariat king University of Singapore.

The Philippine’s hosting of APEC 2015 in Kapampangan.

Sidya ne ning Foreign Service Institute king pamisopanan/pamikasaupan  ning Department of Foreign Affairs
Disenyu ning Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office /APEC  2015 Strategic Communications Committee
Bandi neng karapatan ning APEC 2015 Philippines

____________________

1 Ippei Yamazawa, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC): Challenges and Tasks for the Twenty-First Century (London: Routledge, 2000), 2-4.

2 Ibid.

3 Association of Southeast Asian Nations, “The ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) Bangkok, 8 August 1967” http://www.asean.org/news/item/the-asean-declaration-bangkok-declaration (accessed January 10, 2014).

4 Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, http://www.forumsec.org/pages.cfm/about-us/ (accessed January 10, 2014).

5 APEC Secretariat, APEC: Economic and Technical Cooperation, (October 2013)

6 Policy Support Unit of APEC Secretariat, APEC in Charts 2013. (October 2013)

7 Ibid.

8 APEC Policy Support Unit, APEC’s Bogor Goals Progress Report. (September 2012)

9 Policy Support Unit of APEC Secretariat, APEC in Charts 2013. (October 2013)

10 APEC’s Committee on Trade and Investment, CTI Annual Report to Ministers 2008. (December 2008)

11 APEC Policy Support Unit, APEC’s Achievements in Trade Facilitation 2007-2010: Final Assessment of the Second Trade Facilitation Action Plan (TFAP II). (January 2012)

12 APEC Secretariat, APEC: Economic and Technical Cooperation, (October 2013)

13 Soesastro, Hadi, “APEC’s Overall Goals and Objectives, Evolution and Current Status” in Feinberg, Richard (ed.) APEC as an institution: Multilateral Governance in the Asia-Pacific, (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2003)

14 Candelaria, Sedfrey, “The Legal Characterization of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the Individual Action Plans in International Law” in Villacorta, Wilfredo (ed.) Coalition-Building and APEC, (Makati City: Philippine APEC Study Center Network (PASCN), 2001).

15 Feinberg, Richard and Ye Zhao, Assessing APEC’s Progress: Trade, Ecotech and Institutions, (Singapore: ISEAS, 2001)

16 Ibid.